Drylands cover about 41% of earth’s land area and are home to ~38% of world population. Majority of the people of this ecosystem live in developing countries. Characterized by a fragile natural resource base, this region faces a great challenge in achieving food security. With the threat of climate change in addition, the livelihoods of more than 2.5 billion people – nearly 33% of the world population – living in these areas is at great risk. The efforts of research and development community and policy makers dealing with dry areas and aiming at sustainable management of natural resources have to be boosted in order to optimize adaptive mechanism and risk aversion elements for the dryland communities.