Cotton is an important industrial crop in India. Cotton and cotton textiles constitute a major share of agricultural export. In sixties, the production of cotton was about 5 million bales, mostly of short and medium staple cotton. With the advent of hybrid cottons in seventies, a sea change was brought in cotton scenario both qualitatively and quantitatively. Today, 13 million bales of cotton consisting of short, medium, long and extra long staple are produced annually. This story tells the success of hybrid cotton research and development and its impact on production and quality of cottons in India.